Bhutan is a small, landlocked country with a small population and mountainous terrain. Bhutan has achieved a drastic decline in malaria; cases peaked at nearly 40,000 in 1994 and dropped to only 19 cases in 2014. Nearly two-thirds of all cases in 2014 were caused by Plasmodium vivax. Anopheles sinensis and An. aconitus are the vectors primarily responsible for malaria transmission, with, An. annularis, An. barbirostris, and An. maculatus acting as secondary vectors.
Of Bhutan's 20 districts, 4 have zero risk of malaria transmission, nine have seasonal transmission risk, and seven districts in the south along India’s border have perennial transmission risk. The groups most at-risk of malaria are males, specifically farmers, students and migrant workers, due to various occupational factors.
- 75% of population at risk (total population: 0.7 million)
- 194 reported cases of malaria and 1 death in 2011
- 0.27 Annual Parasite Index (cases/1,000 population/year)
- Dominant malaria species: P. vivax
- Elimination goal: zero cases and zero deaths by 2018