The Solomon Islands has experienced a 73% decrease in reported malaria cases between 2004 and 2015, from 90,240 cases to 23,998 cases. However, the country experienced resurgence malaria in 2016 due to complex controllable and uncontrollable programmatic factors. The reported malaria cases in 2016 were 53,748 cases. Infections from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax occur throughout the year, with transmission peaks in March/May. There is marked variation in the distribution of cases among the 10 provinces, which are targeted through spatially progressive elimination approach.
The main malaria vector is Anopheles farauti and secondary vectors include An. punctulatus and An. koliensis. The secondary vectors (An. punctulatus and An. koliensis) were nearly eliminated by the malaria eradication program of the 1970s, are now uncommon with a patchy distribution across the nation, making it difficult to find them. However, An. farauti has maintained effective transmission by changing its biting behaviour to early evening, outdoor biting. Controlling this vector presents a significant challenge to the NMCP as it works towards elimination.
Quick facts (2017)
- 99% of the total population at risk (total population: 0.62 million)
- 52,483 confirmed cases of malaria and 27 deaths reported
- 83.4 Annual Parasite Index (cases/1,000 population/year)
- Dominant malaria species: non P. falciparum (62.5%)
- Elimination goal: zero indigenous cases and zero deaths by 2030