Vietnam has been progressing toward malaria elimination since the early 1990s, due to sustained vector control and improved diagnostics, treatment and health education. As a result, the morbidity and mortality in Vietnam decreased significantly between 1991 and 2017, with a 99.23 percent decline in malaria cases (from 1,091,251 down to 8,411 cases) and a 99.87 percent decline in malaria deaths (from 4,646 down to 6 deaths).
All five Plasmodium species have been identified in the country; P.falciparum accounts for 62.84 percent of all reported cases, as well almost asymptomatic malaria infections. Malaria transmission is primarily attributed to three major vector species: Anopheles minimus, An. dirus, and An. epiroticus, though more than twenty anopheles species have been detected in Vietnam. Transmission is concentrated in the central and southern provinces of Tay Nguyen highlands, with seasonal peaks between May to June and October to November.
Although sustained vector control and improved diagnostics and treatment have succeeded in reducing the malaria burden in most of Vietnam, malaria continues to pose a threat to communities inhabiting remote forest, forest-fringe, and mountainous regions, and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities, forest workers, and migrants in cross-border areas. Undetected malaria parasites in central Vietnam, antimalarial drug resistance, malaria imported cases especially from Africa remain barriers to malaria elimination.
- 74% of the total population are at risk (total population: 92.4 million)
- 19,252 cases of malaria and 3 deaths in 2015
- 0.21 Annual Parasite Index (cases/1,000 population/year)
- Dominant malaria species: P. falciparum (64%)
- Elimination goal: zero indigenous cases and zero deaths by 2030