Elizabeth A Ashley, Aung Pyae Phyo, Charles J WoodrowApril 6, 2018

Following unsuccessful eradication attempts there was a resurgence of malaria towards the end of the 20th century. Renewed control efforts using a range of improved tools, such as long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets and artemisinin-based combination therapies, have more than halved the global burden of disease, but it remains high with 445 000 deaths and more than 200 million cases in 2016. Pitfalls in individual patient management are delayed diagnosis and overzealous fluid resuscitation in severe malaria. Even in the absence of drug resistance, parasite recurrence can occur, owing to high parasite densities, low host immunity, or suboptimal drug concentrations.

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