Since the 1990s, intensive vector control along with improved targeting of at-risk populations has achieved a marked reduction in Thailand's malaria incidence. Reported malaria cases declined by 52% between 2000 and 2014, from 78,561 to 37,921 cases. During that same time period, deaths due to malaria decreased by 94%, from 625 to 38 deaths. Thailand has two transmission peaks, from June to August and October to November, coinciding with the rainy season and a corresponding increase in density of the main vectors. The primary vectors responsible for malaria transmission are Anopheles dirus and An. minimus, with An. maculatus becoming increasingly important due to deforestation.
The vast majority of annual malaria transmission occurs in the densely forested border regions with Myanmar to the west and Cambodia to the east, with minimal transmission occurring in the central provinces. The border area between Cambodia and Thailand has grappled with malaria drug resistance since the 1970s, and a high level of population movement along border areas has exacerbated the recent spread of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. The populations at greatest risk for malaria are economic migrants and other mobile groups living and working in forested border areas.
- 50% of the total population are at risk (total population: 67.7 million)
- 37,921 cases of malaria and 38 deaths in 2014
- 0.56 Annual Parasite Index (cases/1,000 population/year)
- Dominant malaria species: P. vivax (54%)
- Elimination goal: zero indigenous cases and zero deaths by 2024